Cardiovascular and Energy Requirements of Parents Watching Their Child Compete: A Pilot Mixed-Methods Investigation
AbstractPurpose: Researchers have extensively documented the cardiovascular and metabolic demands for sports participation. To date, researchers have ignored the same requirements of competitor’s parents. Hence, our purpose was to document parent cardiovascular and metabolic responses to watching their child compete while also paying particular attention to their thoughts before and after the competition. Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) drove interpretation of parent thoughts. Materials: Parents wore a device, made by Firstbeat Technologies, which continuously monitored heart rate. The parents wore the device the night before the competition to be acclimated to the technology and during the event until later in the day. Parents also completed two open-ended questions, one before the tournament and one after the contest. Results: Before the contest, the dad expected that his son won the event (Croatian National Championships for juniors). Conversely, the mother’s expectations centered more on her son’s enjoyment and competing to the best of his abilities. Parents had differing cardiovascular and energy requirement responses to watching their son compete. In addition, post-competition reflections differed as the father expressed disappointment whereas the mother expressed sadness. Conclusions: The data presented are unique and a first in the sports literature. The parents varied in the intensity of their cardiovascular responses and calories burned while watching their son compete. The father’s cardiovascular response over the course of watching was that of an aerobic workout. Whether this pattern is unique or universal are a critical research question. Last, AGT appears relevant when assessing the parent’s expectations.
View Counter: Abstract | 349 | times, Article PDF |
Karpan G, Škof B, Bon M, Šibila M. Analysis of female handball players' effort in different playing positions during official matches. Kinesiology. 2015;47(1): 100-107.
Suarez-Arrones L, Torreño N, Requena B, Sáez De Villarreal E, Casamichana D, Barbero-Alvarez JC, Munguía-Izquierdo D. Match-play activity profile in professional soccer players during official games and the relationship between external and internal load. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2015;55(12): 1417-1422.
Morales J, Garcia V, García-Massó X, Salvá P, Escobar R, Buscà B. The use of heart rate variability in assessing precompetitive stress in high-standard judo athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013; 34(2): 144-151.
Suchomel A. A Comparison of Exercise Intensity on Different Player Levels in Table Tennis. International Table Tennis Federation Sports Science Congress Conference Proceedings. 2010;6: 79-82.
Martin C, Thevenet D, Zouhal H, Mornet Y, Delès R, Crestel T, ... Prioux J. Effects of playing surface (hard and clay courts) on heart rate and blood lactate during tennis matches played by high-level players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2011;25(1): 163-170.
Vaquera A, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Calleja-González J, Leicht AS. Match intensity and heart rate predictors in top level basketball referees during men's Eurobasket. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2016;56(9): 1034-1040.
Mills A, Butt J, Maynard I, Harwood C. Identifying factors perceived to influence the development of elite youth football academy players. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2012;30(15): 1593-1604.
Atkins MR, Johnson DM, Force EC, Petrie TA. Peers, parents, and coaches, oh my! The relation of the motivational climate to boys' intention to continue in sport. Psychology of Sport & Exercise. 2015;16: 170-180.
McCarthy PJ, Jones MV, Clark-Carter D. Understanding enjoyment in youth sport: a developmental perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2008;9(2): 142-156.
Stein G, Raedeke T, Glenn S. Children's perceptions of parent sport involvement: it's not how much, but to what degree that's important. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1999;22(4): 591-601.
Dorsch TE, Smith AL, Wilson SR, McDonough MH. Parent goals and verbal sideline behavior in organized youth sport. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 2015;4(1): 19–35.
Holt NL, Tamminen KA, Black DE, Sehn ZL, Wall MP. Parental involvement in competitive youth sport settings. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2008;9(5): 663-685.
Harwood CG, Keegan RJ, Smith JJ, Raine AS. A systematic review of the intrapersonal correlates of motivational climate perceptions in sport and physical activity. Psychology of Sport And Exercise. 2015;18: 9-25.
Lochbaum M, Jean-Noel J, Pinar C, Gilson T. A meta-analytic review of Elliot's (1999) Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Motivation in the sport, physical activity, and physical education literature. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2017;6(1): 68-80.
Lochbaum M, Gottardy J. A meta-analytic review of the approach-avoidance achievement goals and performance relationships in the sport psychology literature. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2015;4: 164-173.
Lochbaum M, Kazak Çetinkalp Z, Graham K, Wright T, Zazo R. Task and ego goal orientations in competitive sport: A quantitative review of the literature from 1989 to 2016. Kinesiology. 2016; 8(1): 3-29.
Lochbaum M, Zazo R, Kazak Çetinkalp Z, Wright T, Graham K, Konttinen N. A meta-analytic review of achievement goal orientation correlates in competitive sport: A follow-up to Lochbaum et al. (2016). Kinesiology. 2016;48(2): 159-173.
Hogue CM, Fry MD, Fry AC. The differential impact of motivational climate on adolescents’ psychological and physiological stress responses. Psychology of Sport & Exercise. 2017;30: 118-127.
Elliot AJ. Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist. 1999;34(3): 169–189.
Elliot AJ. The Hierarchical Model of Approach-Avoidance Motivation. Motivation and Emotion. 2006;30(2): 111–116.
Creswell JW. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2014.
Creswell JW, Plano Clark V. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2007.
Copyright Holder - Author(s).
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: more