THE EFFECTS OF OMEGA-3 INTAKE ON DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORNESS IN NON-ATHLET MEN
AbstractDelayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is classified as a muscle strain that presents with tenderness and stiffness one to two days after exercise. At present there are multiple proposed methods for treating DOMS, including anti-inflammatory medication, stretching, homeopathy, L-carnitine, rest and light exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigation of the effects of omega-3 intake on delayed onset muscle soreness in non-athlete men. 20 healthy subjects (age: 20.5±1.8 years) participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control). In the experimental group, subjects consume daily 2000 mg of omega-3; 2 times per day for 1 month before and 48 hours after perform leg press exercise with eccentric pattern. Similarly, the was taking in the control group. The results showed significant decrease in severity of DOMS (CK and LDH levels and decreased knee's range of motion) in experimental group in comparison with control group (p<0.05). As a result of our study it is suggested that the use of omega-3 supplement can effectively reduce DOMS caused by eccentric exercise.
View Counter: Abstract | 98 | times, Article PDF |
Abrams G.D. Response of the body to injury: inflammation and repair. In: Pathophysiology: Clinical Concepts of Disease. 1 ed. Boston: Mosby. 1997, pp. 38-58.
Almekinders L.C. Anti inflammatory treatment of muscular injuries in sport. An update of studies. Sports Medicine. 1999, vol.28(6), pp. 383-388.
Al-Obaidi S.M., Al-Zoabi B., Al-Shuwaie N., Al-Zaabie N., Nelson RM. The influence of pain and pain-related fear and disability beliefs on walking velocity in chronic low back pain. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. 2003, vol.26, pp. 101-108.
Armstrong R.B. Mechanisms of exercise-induced delayed onset muscular soreness: a brief review. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1984 16(6), pp. 529-38.
Barlas P., Jason A., Judith R., James M. Managing delayed onset muscle soreness: lack of effect selected oral systemic analgesics. Archive of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2000, vol.81, pp. 966-972.
Bishop A., Thomas E., Foster N.E. Health care practitioners' attitudes and beliefs about low back pain: a systematic search and critical review of available measurement tools. Journal of Pain. 2007, vol.132, pp. 91-101.
Burnley E.C.D., Olson A.N, Sharp R.L,. Baier S.M., Alekel D.L. Impact of Protein Supplements on Muscle Recovery After Exercise-induced Muscle Soreness. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2010, vol.8(2), pp. 89-96.
Byrne C., Eston R. The effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on isometric and dynamic knee extensor strength and vertical jump performance. Journal of Sports Science. 2002, vol.20(5), pp. 417-25.
Calder P.C. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006, vol.83, pp. 1505-1519.
Dannecker E.A., Knoll V., Robinson M.E. Sex differences in muscle pain: self-care behaviors and effects on daily activities. Journal of Pain. 2008 , vol.9, pp. 200-209.
Dawson B., Gow S., Modra S. Effects of immediate post-game recovery procedures on muscle soreness, power and flexibility levels over the 48 h. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2005 8(2), pp. 210-221.
Dolezal B.A., Potteiger J.A., Dennis J., Stephen H. Muscle damage and resting metabolic rate after acute resistance exercise with an eccentric overload. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2000, vol.32, pp. 1202-1207.
Donnelly A.E., Mccormick K., Maughan R.J., Whiting P.H., Clarkson P.M. Effect of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on delayed onset muscle soreness and indices of damage. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 1998, vol.22, pp. 35-38.
Eston R., Petens D. Effects of cold water immersion on the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage. Journal of Sports Science. 1999, vol.17(3), pp. 231-238.
Hertel J. The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries. Journal of Athletic Training. 1997, vol.2, pp. 350-307.
Itoh K., Ochi H., Kitakoji H. Effects of tender point acupuncture on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) - a pragmatic trial. BioMed Central Ltd. 2008, vol.10, pp. 3-14.
Jafary A., Pour-Razi H., Zamani-Sani S.H. Effects of resistance training with different intensities (50 and 70% 1RM) on indices of DOMS in untrained males. Research on sports science. 2010, vol.26, pp. 45 - 60.
Jones D.H, Kilgour R.D, Comtois A.S. Test-Retest Reliability of Pressure Pain Threshold Measurements of the Upper Limb and Torso in Young Healthy Women. The Journal of Pain. 2007, vol.8(8), pp. 650-656.
Jouris K.B., McDaniel J.L., Weiss E.P. The effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the inflammatory response to eccentric strength exercise. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2011, vol.10, pp. 432 - 438.
Lecomte J.M., Lacroix V.J., Montqomry D.L. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of naproxen on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle strength. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 1998, vol.(2), pp. 82-87.
Lenn J., Uhl T., Mattacola C., Boissonneault G., Yates J., Ibrahim W., Bruckner G. The effects of fish oil and isoflavones on delayed onset muscle soreness. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2002, vol.10, pp. 1249-1253.
Liang M.T., Allen T.W., Mckeigue M.E., Kotis A., Gierke L.W. Effect of cooling on muscular health prior to running a marathon. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association; 2001, vol.101(4), pp. 219-225.
Maclntyre D.L., Reid W.D., McKenzie D.C. Delayed muscle soreness. The inflammatory response to muscle injury and its clinical implications. Sports Medicine.1995, vol.20(1), pp. 24-40.
Maridakis V., O'Connor P.J., Dudley G.A., McCully K.K. Caffeine attenuates delayed-onset muscle pain and force loss following eccentric exercise. Research on Sport Sciences. 2007, vol.20(5), pp. 237-241
Mickleborough T.D., Rundell K.W. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in asthma- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). European journal of clinical nutrition. 2005, vol.59, pp. 1335-1346.
Miles M.p., Clarkson P.M. Exercise induced pain, soreness and Cramps. Journal of sport medicine and physical fitness. 1994, vol.43, pp. 203-216.
Nosaka K., Clarkson PM. Changes in indicators of inflammation after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1996, vol.28(8), pp. 953-961.
Percival J.M., Anderson K.N.E., Huang P., Adams M.E., Froehner S.C. Golgi and sarcolemmal neuronal NOS differentially regulate contraction-induced fatigue and vasoconstriction in exercising mouse skeletal muscle. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2010, vol.120, pp. 816-826.
Pumpa K.L., Fallon K.E., Bensoussan A., Papalia S. The effects of Lyprinol® on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle damage in well trained athletes: A double-blind randomised controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2011, vol.19(6), pp. 311-318.
Rawson E.S., Gunn B., Clarkson P.M. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damag. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2001, vol.15(2), pp. 178-18.
Reynolds J. F., Noakes T.D., Schwellnus M.P., Windt A., Bowerbank P. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs fail to enhance healing of acute hamstring injuries treated with physiotherapy. South African Medical Journal. 1995, vol.85(6), pp. 517-522.
Rodenburg J.B., Steenbeck P., Bar P.R. Warm-up, stretching and massage diminish harmful effects of eccentric exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1994, vol.15, pp. 414-419.
Rothmuller C., Cafarelli E. Effect of VT on antagonist muscle co-activation during progressive fatigue in humans. The Journal of Physiology. 1995, vol.485, pp. 857-864.
Sayers S.P., Clarkson P.M., Lee J. Activity and immobilization after eccentric exercise: I. Recovery of muscle function. Medicine & Science in Sports& Exercise.2000, vol.32(9), pp. 1587-1592.
Stone M.B., Merrick M.A., Ingersol C.D., Edwards J.E. Preliminary comparison of bromelain and Ibuprofen for delayed onset muscle soreness management. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2002, vol.12(6), pp. 373-8.
Sunita M., William A., Jeremy D., Darlene W. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness After Inspiratory Threshold Loading in Healthy Adults. Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal. 2010, vol.4, pp. 34-38.
Tartibian B., Azizbeigi K. The Effect of Taking Naproxen Drug on the Level of Perceived Pain and Changes of CPK Serum after Eccentric exercise. World journal of sport sciences. 2009, vol.37, pp. 77-92.
Tiidus P.M. Massage and ultrasound as therapeutic modalities in exercise induced muscle damage. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 1999, vol.24(3), pp. 267-278.
Tokmakidis S.P., Kokkinidis E.A., Smilios I., et al. The effects of ibuprofen on delayed muscle soreness and muscular performance after eccentric exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2003, vol.17 (1), pp. 53-59.
Trost Z., France C.R., Thomas J.S. Pain-related fear and avoidance of physical exertion following delayed-onset muscle soreness. Journal of Pain.2011, vol.3, pp. 1540-1547.
Vaile J., Gill N., Blazevich J. The effect of contrast water therapy on symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2007, vol.21(3), pp. 697-702.
Wewers M.E., Lowe N.K. A critical review of visual analogue scales in the measurement of clinical phenomena. Research in Nursing and Health. 1990, vol.13, pp. 227-236.
White J.P., Wilson JM., et al. Effect of carbohydrate- protein supplement timing on acute exercise-induced muscle damage. Journal of the International Society of Sports Mutrition. 2008, vol.5(1), pp. 1-7.
Wiliams B., Housh T.J., Johnson G.O. Effects of a protease supplement on eccentric exercise-induced markers of delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2007, vol.21(3), pp. 661-667.
Copyright Holder - Author(s).
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: more